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Venkatesh Ramesh

PhD - Université de Montréal


ClimateSet: A Large-Scale Climate Model Dataset for Machine Learning
Julia Kaltenborn
Charlotte Emilie Elektra Lange
Venkatesh Ramesh
Philippe Brouillard
Yaniv Gurwicz
Chandni Nagda
Jakob Runge
Peer Nowack
Climate models have been key for assessing the impact of climate change and simulating future climate scenarios. The machine learning (ML) c… (see more)ommunity has taken an increased interest in supporting climate scientists’ efforts on various tasks such as climate model emulation, downscaling, and prediction tasks. Many of those tasks have been addressed on datasets created with single climate models. However, both the climate science and ML communities have suggested that to address those tasks at scale, we need large, consistent, and ML-ready climate model datasets. Here, we introduce ClimateSet, a dataset containing the inputs and outputs of 36 climate models from the Input4MIPs and CMIP6 archives. In addition, we provide a modular dataset pipeline for retrieving and preprocessing additional climate models and scenarios. We showcase the potential of our dataset by using it as a benchmark for ML-based climate model emulation. We gain new insights about the performance and generalization capabilities of the different ML models by analyzing their performance across different climate models. Furthermore, the dataset can be used to train an ML emulator on several climate models instead of just one. Such a “super-emulator” can quickly project new climate change scenarios, complementing existing scenarios already provided to policymakers. We believe ClimateSet will create the basis needed for the ML community to tackle climate-related tasks at scale.
Fourier Neural Operators for Arbitrary Resolution Climate Data Downscaling
Qidong Yang
Alex Hernandez-Garcia
Paula Harder
Venkatesh Ramesh
Prasanna Sattegeri
D. Szwarcman
C. Watson
Climate simulations are essential in guiding our understanding of climate change and responding to its effects. However, it is computational… (see more)ly expensive to resolve complex climate processes at high spatial resolution. As one way to speed up climate simulations, neural networks have been used to downscale climate variables from fast-running low-resolution simulations, but high-resolution training data are often unobtainable or scarce, greatly limiting accuracy. In this work, we propose a downscaling method based on the Fourier neural operator. It trains with data of a small upsampling factor and then can zero-shot downscale its input to arbitrary unseen high resolution. Evaluated both on ERA5 climate model data and on the Navier-Stokes equation solution data, our downscaling model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art convolutional and generative adversarial downscaling models, both in standard single-resolution downscaling and in zero-shot generalization to higher upsampling factors. Furthermore, we show that our method also outperforms state-of-the-art data-driven partial differential equation solvers on Navier-Stokes equations. Overall, our work bridges the gap between simulation of a physical process and interpolation of low-resolution output, showing that it is possible to combine both approaches and significantly improve upon each other.